[The following document is a generic position paper to help us fight the API, et al model anti-exotic animal ownership bills. There are places where you must insert the applicable information for your state, county or city. You may use the ideas in this paper for talking points or re-arrange and modify them as you see fit. These arguments can also be used to defend ownership rights of all animals including cats and dogs. This paper was written in 2007, so be sure to check for updated information and the current legislation, rules and regulations before sharing it with your representatives etc]
Native Species: Legal and Self Regulating Controls in Place
Animals Are Property: People Own Animals
Stakeholders - those who own animals - do not support animal rights model legislation that is written only for the purpose and intent to restrict and eventually end private animal ownership.
Current law defines animals as the "property" of the owners. The United States Constitution guarantees the fundamental right of property ownership. The ability of a U.S. citizen to make important decisions regarding their property is the most fundamental element of property rights. This bill would eliminate the property owner's right to make decisions about the care of their animals. This interference by state and local government violates the due process clause of the Fourteenth Amendment of the United States Constitution.
The API model legislation and others like it are too broadly and vaguely written. This legislation lacks measurable standards and encourages arbitrary and selective enforcement, often by those who will exploit their powers for personal gain. These model bills also attempt to illegally regulate the practice of veterinary medicine while they contain false presumptions about animals. Often these bills' intent to insure public safety and welfare do not advance the public purpose it claims.
Taxpayers must be given proper representation. The voters' voices must be heard in matters that directly affect them. Non profit animal rights groups do not have the hands-on experience of raising, breeding or operating an animal based business - whether it be beef and dairy cattle, commercial poultry, pet shop animals, "exotic, non-native" animals, or commercial kennels and catteries. The tax free non-profit's "business" is to collect charitable donations. In order to do so, they must convince the unsuspecting public there is a need that only their organization can fill.
Do not rely on faulty information and misrepresentations provided by such organizations. They have their own primary agenda and you may be surprised how their goals may one day affect your own life.
ADD [Your State] Constitution and Bill Of Rights (Applicable quotes) as well as the federal quotes that apply from:
The Declaration of Independence: Consent of the Governed
The right to privacy
The Constitution does not specifically mention a right to privacy. However, Supreme Court decisions over the years have established that the right to privacy is a basic human right, and as such is protected by virtue of the 9th Amendment. A right to privacy is inherent in many of the amendments in the Bill of Rights, such as the 3rd, the 4th's search and seizure limits, and the 5th's self-incrimination limit
42 U.S.C. § 1983 Claims and the Fourth Amendment to the Constitution
A Section 1983 claim requires a showing of the deprivation of a constitutional or federal statutory "right." A violation of the Fourth Amendment's guarantee against unreasonable searches and seizures or a violation of the Commerce Clause are examples of federal constitutional rights that may be deprived. Deprivation of federal statutory rights is also actionable when it can be shown that the statute creates a federal right. Due process violations may also attach to the vagueness of a law or statute's wording.
To prevail in a claim under section 1983, the plaintiff must prove two critical issues: a person subjected the plaintiff to conduct that occurred under color of state law, and this conduct deprived the plaintiff of rights, privileges, or immunities guaranteed under federal law or the U.S. Constitution.
Conflicts of Interest
All too often, personal agendas are involved where animal ownership is concerned. False reports are made. Animals are seized that are being well cared for. These animals can be sold for donations (i.e. profit) or they can be warehoused and hoarded in nonprofit "rescues" and sanctuaries that offer substandard conditions and care.
To be sure there are legitimate cases where animals must be removed from current owners due to many reasons. There are also top notch rescue and holding facilities - but that is not always the case. Should exotic and non-native animals be regulated, then so too should the non-profit sanctuaries, rescues and holding facilities.
Within the regulatory process, litigation often becomes necessary when a rulemaking or other final agency action is unlawful or unreasonable, or when a client must defend itself against an ill-founded or overreaching enforcement action.
"During reasonable hours with a proper warrant, a person may not obstruct or hinder the employees in the discharge of their duties."
What are reasonable hours? The term "proper warrant" is vague and ambiguous. A warrant must be based on probable cause -- NOT on hearsay, an anonymous complaint, upon false witness or misleading information from disgruntled or vindictive persons with a personal agenda. Any confiscation or seizure should be based on genuine facts, not subjective opinions of employees, humane societies or animal control officers. Far too many of these types of cases have occurred across our nation, and animal owners have suffered from excessive regulations that are arbitrarily enforced. They have been litigated until they are broke. Others choose to give up their animals when they are threatened with stiff fines and possible jail time. They simply cannot afford the time and money that are necessary to fight city hall or an administrative agency.
Generally, the owner of an seized animal is liable for all costs of treatment and care while the native animal is under another's control. The Board may require an owner to post a bond sufficient to the reasonable costs of treatment and care of the nonnative animal during the period of confinement. Will an owner be charged for special caging, food and supplies to house the seized animal? In many cases, where the owner has been proved innocent in a court of law, the animals have been returned in poor health. Often the holding facility does not have the expertise and knowledge to properly care for these animals. Some animals die to poor nutrition and stress - things that a private owner would be held accountable under animal cruelty laws.
Seizure; return; bond. This section sets forth the circumstances under which the Board may immediately seize an animal. The animal(s) will be returned to the owner/possessor only if he or she has a permit, is in compliance with the law and the nonnative species poses no threat to humans, other animals or plant life.
This provision is heavy handed. An owner/possessor should be given an opportunity and reasonable time to come into compliance with the law. Otherwise, there may be incentive to take animals in order to charge high boarding fees. This is happening across the country and has become a lucrative way for rescues and shelters to make money.
Permits, Fees and Identification
The larger "exotic" non native species such as big cats (Felidae), monkeys (non-human primates, canidae (nonnative canines) or Ursidae (bears) are already regulated under the USDA as well as various state and local laws. It is quite possible that an owner of such an animal(s) will pay multiple permit fees. As far as the smaller species of such animals, such as herps, commonly kept pet birds, gerbils and so forth, efficient record-keeping would be a costly and labor intensive. Surely the taxpayers of West Virginia have more important concerns. Tracking each and every animal that may have numerous owners throughout its lifetime is just not feasible.
Registries and Privacy Issues
SB384 §19-9b-10 - "Establish and maintain a registry of ALL persons and businesses engaged in the sale of animals in this state." This may seem like a reasonable provision, but it too, has inherent problems. Privacy is (quote constitution) is a prime concern to stakeholders and taxpayers. Such registry database lists have been obtained by animal rights groups and posted to the internet for all to see. Registries and other mandatory requirements are invasions of privacy. An animal's medical records, with the exception of reportable diseases, are between a veterinarian and his or her client.
Records Management: Privacy Issues and Animal Enterprise Terrorism
Government licenses are public records. Anyone may request a copy for a fee. Driver's licenses, marriage licenses, dog licenses, and so forth are included. Most localities routinely sell this information which is generally used for sales and marketing purposes. Pet owners, kennel license holders and animal breeding facilities that are registered are more likely to be targeted by animal enterprise terrorists.
Certain ARA groups now appear on the FBI's Top Terrorist Threat listing (i.e. ALF - the Animal Liberation Front). Such groups utilize the internet to target their next animal-owning victims. They have the ability to infiltrate breeding facilities, veterinarian offices, government offices and other animal-related businesses - as well as hack into all types of informational databases.
Licensing, if properly and fairly mandated, will serve many various functions. However, the information collected must remain confidential or good citizens can be victimized by ARAs. They have no respect for private property rights and have released animals that could not survive in the wild. They have stolen dogs from people's own backyards just because they believe that the animals are not being properly cared for. In short, they have taken the law into their own hands.
It is important to continue to safeguard citizens, yet it is vitally important to govern under the guidelines that are uniquely American; by carefully following Constitutional law as written in the
Bill of Rights.
The AR terrorists have focused their sabotage primarily on research laboratories that use animal testing. This is a lengthy subject in and of itself and it is heartbreaking to realize that we have lost so much valuable research and possible cures and medicines that could have saved countless human lives. This is but one example of what can happen when the public has access to information that should remain confidential.
Chronological list of Animal Enterprise Terrorism Acts
In fact, if you have time, please browse through the information on the National Animal Interest Alliance (NAIA) website. You may gain a new perspective on issues dealing with animal ownership.
Director's Cut DVD "Animal Righteousness: The Terror of Animal Rights"
North Carolina Association of Zoos and Sanctuaries - NCAZS
Animal rights activists released privately owned lion cubs in order to generate fear and push legislation that indeed has threatened and endangered the rights and privileges of responsible animal owners nationwide. They trespass on private property. They have no respect for anyone's privacy. They release animals with no thought to the animals' welfare.
Non-Native and Exotic Animals are Domesticated and Captive Bred
Many "non-native" and "exotic" animals and birds fit the definition of "domestic animal." They have had a long association with humans and genetic changes have deliberately been sought to improve the temperament, color and health of such animals. Self regulation by peer pressure is remarkably effective; and from turtles to dogs to tigers, the serious owner can be depended on to exceed normal good husbandry, veterinary, and safety/legal requirements. Such owners provide educational examples on how to further advance animal ownership within a comfortable framework of today's society, and perpetuate the man/animal bonds established in the "cave man" era. Such bonds between animal and man are necessary, desirable, and deeply part of who, and what, we are.
Definition of Domestic Animal
Domestic animal: An animal that has been housed and fed by man for generations and has little fear of man as a result. Some domestic animals learn to depend on human provision so completely that they have little ability to survive if returned to a natural habitat.
To be considered domesticated, a population of animals must have their behavior, life cycle, or physiology systemically altered as a result of being under humans control for many generations. Animals included in this list that do not fully meet this criterion are designated "captive-bred" or "semi-domesticated."
Federally Approved Biologics for Wolf dogs and Other Captive Bred "Nonnative Species"
Zoos throughout the U.S. use rabies vaccines routinely to protect wolves and other captive canids against this disease. Since wolf-dog hybrids are not wild animals, there should be no legal reason why rabies vaccination should not be acceptable. It is a medically-acceptable fact that rabies vaccinations result in a protective antibody response in canids, and since laws should be based upon fact and not fiction, it is fictitious to contend that a rabies vaccination for a wolf-dog hybrid is somehow different than it is for a dog. "Domestic" dogs have innumerable wolf genes since they share a close common ancestry. A wild wolf is genetically little more distant from the domesticated dog than wild mustang is to a quarter horse. That wolf and dog can be hybridized, while a fox and a dog cannot, points to the genetic and ancestral affinities of wolf and dog. The genetic and phenotype distance" between wolf and dog is closed by hybridization and by taming or human-imprinting early in life. In sum, a first generation wolf-dog hybrid raised with human contact, like the offspring of a tamed or broken mustang, cannot be considered to be a wild animal in any sense of the word.
News from Zoos: Fostering Red Wolf Pups and Rabies Vaccinations
Recently, all four pups of this litter were not only seen, but also captured, and found to be in excellent health. Each pup was given a physical exam and vaccinations against parvo-virus, distemper and rabies.
Rabies Vaccination Protocol: AZA Maned Wolf Husbandry Manual
Vaccination of Exotic and Wild Animals
Definition of Dangerous Animal is Vague and Ambiguous
The definition of "Dangerous Animal" is vague and could mean anything at any time. The animals listed in SB 384 (2007), §19-9B-1(3) as "dangerous" are taken directly from API model legislation. In fact many of the bill's provision are based on this model. What is not included in the bill would be regulated in should a Board be established.
Furthermore, a non-native species board would be prone to include a category or breed of animal simply because of one incident with one animal. Expanding the definition to include subspecies or crossbreed is an indication of future regulations that would follow if a nonnative species board was implemented.
A Common Sense Definition of Dangerous Animal
(1) "Dangerous Animal" means any animal which repeatedly bites or attacks a person or an animal more than once, but does not include the following:
(2) An animal that bites or attacks a person or animal that is trespassing on the property of the animal's owner;
(3) An animal that bites or attacks a person or animal that provokes, torments, tortures, or treats an animal cruelly; or
(4) An animal that is responding in a manner that an ordinary and reasonable person would conclude was designed to protect a person if that person is engaged in lawful activity or is the subject of an assault or battery, or to protect itself or another animal;
**[Apply Your State's laws and regulations] regarding Vicious or Dangerous Dogs.
USDA/APHISFederal regulations for Licensing and Registration under the Animal Welfare Act
Guidelines for Dealers, Exhibitors, Transporters, and Researchers
Retail Pet Stores--Anyone whose entire business consists of selling domestic animals to pet owners is exempt. However, if as part of your business you exhibit animals, you may have to be licensed as an exhibitor.
For example, you need an exhibitor's license if you take animals outside the store for teaching or promotion or if you set up a petting display. You must be licensed as a dealer if you sell wild or exotic animals, or if you sell regulated animals to other retailers, research institutions, exhibitors, or other animal dealers. You need to be licensed as an exhibitor if you display a monkey or other wild animal inside the store.
Exemptions for retail pet stores are on an all-or-nothing basis. If you qualify for exemption, none of your business is regulated or inspected. If you do not qualify, you are a full-fledged dealer, and all your regulated animals are inspected.
Retail Chain Stores--Centrally managed stores that sell pets entirely at retail are exempt. Like independent retailers, chains are treated as business entities on an all-or-nothing basis. If all outlets qualify as retail pet stores, the entire chain is free from regulation. Conversely, if any outlet does not qualify as a retail pet store, the company must be licensed as a dealer, and all regulated animals at all outlets are inspected.
Direct Sales--Anyone who sells domestic pets directly to pet owners is exempt, regardless of sales volume. Such sales can be made in person or by mail.
Hobby Breeders--Small-scale breeders with gross sales under $500 per year are exempt, as long as these sales do not include wild or exotic animals, dogs, or cats. If you own no more than three breeding female dogs or cats and sell the offspring, into the pet channels only, you are exempt.
Public Pounds--Animal shelters that are part of State, county, or local governments are exempt. The exemption covers only the pound's own activities. You must have a dealer's license if you purchase animals from pounds for resale or acquire them on contract for resale. The Pet Protection Act of 1990 places some restrictions on pounds and shelters, such as a specific holding period for animals before they may be sold to a dealer.
Private Shelters--Animal shelters operated by humane societies and other private groups are exempt unless animals are disposed of through trade channels as pets or to research institutions for use as laboratory animals, or animals are taken off the premises for exhibition to the public.
Trade-Day Sales Sponsors--Anyone arranging occasions for people to make private sales or trades of animals is exempt. The exemption holds only if the sponsor does not act as intermediary in the transaction. The buyers, sellers, and traders at trade-day sales, however, must be licensed if they meet the definition of a dealer.
Boarding Kennels--Anyone housing animals for others is exempt, except for intermediate handlers and holding facilities. You must be registered as an intermediate handler if, as part of your services, you receive shipment of regulated animals traveling on public carriers. You have to agree in writing to observe USDA's standards of animal care if you operate a holding facility--meaning that you board regulated animals for licensed dealers or research facilities. APHIS inspects regulated animals in holding facilities to ensure that they receive the required care; dealers or research facilities need prior APHIS approval to board regulated animals with you.
Dealers in a Nonregulated Species--There is a blanket exemption for anyone handling only those animals not included under Federal law or regulations http://www.aphis.usda.gov/lpa/pubs/awlicreg.html#Intro
**[Also research your state for additional regulations. They are often found under the State Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources or Fish and Wildlife/Game]
Appropriations and Taxpayer Monies
[Add any relevant arguments in this section]
For instance: By comparison, the Animal Protection Institute (API) tax-free budget of $4,673,863 for 2005 alone is spent on such things as:
$261,318 for compensation of 5 Officers and Directors; $47,083 for legal fees; $38,332 for telephone bills; $193,222 for postage and shipping; $59,175 for direct mail consultant (to raise more funds from the public); $19,658 for office equipment ; $234,257 for printing and publications and $72,719for travel. They received $3,195,469 in direct public support and have $1,306,510 in investments.
Insurance and Signage
Signage can create an "attractive nuisance" where none existed. It can attract the curious and tempt them to trespass or it can attract thieves. Utility workers and animal control services have no business on a property without first securing permission of the property owner. Nor is it in the best interest of public safety for neighbors and neighborhood youth to be notified of the presence of captive wildlife. Posting signs has been shown to encourage the general public to enter the private property of captive wildlife owners. In many jurisdictions, first responders, such as local fire and police, are often already aware of captive wildlife owners.
During a national animal rights conference in July of 2006, animal rights leadership encouraged animal rights activists to harass captive animal owners and encouraged them to release the captive animals. Signage makes the illegal acts of domestic terrorists much easier to accomplish. There are many documented incidents where activists and vandals in the U.S. illegally entered zoos and other animal facilities. They have released animals which could become a threat to public safety. Vandals have also been known to torture and kill zoo animals.
Requiring signage on captive wildlife properties provides information to activists and thieves without offering any protection to neighboring properties.
Requiring insurance and bonds for captive wildlife owners can create a Catch-22 situation.
Some states and localities have labeled certain animals as "dangerous." Owners of these animals often learn that insurance companies refuse to insure them, thus they can be charged with non-compliance, thus creating a "de facto" ban on animals. Insurance requirements could make it impossible to own an otherwise lawful animal. Dangerous, or exotic animal policies, are never available as part of homeowners insurance and must be obtained from specialist carriers. Such coverage can easily cost OVER $1,000 A YEAR PER ANIMAL - and that is for low liability coverage. Coverage amounts are never specified in the proposed West Virginia bills, and could be changed at whim by a Board proposal.
The Zoonosis Scare Tactic
The API Model Anti-Exotic Animal Ownership Bill begins with the statement that "it is the intent of the state to protect the public against health and safety risks that exotic animals pose to the community …"
Though this sounds good on paper, please be advised that protocols are already in place to track and monitor disease, including zoonoses.
According to the CDC website, "Although animals can carry germs, it is important to know that you are more likely to get some of these germs from contaminated food or water than from your pet or another animal you encounter." We do not live in a third world country where medical care is not readily available, if necessary.
The U.S. Center for Disease Control reports no incidence of diseases from non-native species occurring in [Your State] for [xxx]. During the 2003 monkeypox "scare", 37 confirmed cases were reported nationwide and [X] were from [your state].
Veterinarians and medical doctors are already under strict regulations to report diseases of concern to the U.S. Public Health Service.
Summary of Federal and State Laws Already in Place
United States Code - Control of Communicable Diseases (42 USC 264-272)
Code of Federal Regulations - Interstate Quarantine (42 CFR 70)
Executive Orders Amendment to E.O. 13295: Quarantinable Communicable Diseases
Interim Final Rule Restrictions on African Rodents and Prairie Dogs (42 CFR 71.56)
Orders Issued by CDC Notice of Embargo of Civets (January 13, 2004)
Orders Issued by CDC Notice of embargo of birds from specified countries
International Agreements International Health Regulations
Additional Information Controlling the Spread of Contagious Diseases: Quarantine and Isolation
Fact sheets developed via cooperative agreement between CDC and the American Red Cross.
Fact Sheet: Isolation and Quarantine (Updated September 9, 2004)
Fact Sheet: Legal Authorities for Isolation/Quarantine (Updated February 9, 2006)
Q & A: Legal Authorities for Isolation and Quarantine (Updated February 9, 2006)
Q & A on the Embargo of Birds from Specified Southeast Asian Countries (2004)
Question and Answers on the Embargo of Civets (January 20, 2004)
Q & A on Interim Final Rule Prohibiting Importation of African Rodents (2003)
Additional Public Health Law ResourcesCDC Public Health Law Program
Center for Law and the Public's Health
Model State Emergency Health Powers Act
U.S. Code Title 7 Agriculture
§8319. Surveillance of zoonotic diseasesTitle 42 Public Health and Welfare
Chapter 6A Subchapter II Page G
§264 Regulations to control Communicable Diseases
§1240.63. African rodents and other animals that may carry monkeypox virus
§1240.65 Psittacine Birds
**[Find your applicable state statutes and reporting systems]
[Many states have General Case Investigation Forms and Electronic Disease surveillance Systems]
The problem as defined by CDC: Currently there are multiple systems in place that support communications for public health labs, the clinical community, and state and local health departments. Each has demonstrated the importance of being able to exchange health information. However, many of these systems operate in isolation, not capitalizing on the potential for a cross-fertilization of data exchange. A crosscutting and unifying framework is needed to better monitor these data streams for early detection of public health issues and emergencies. The Public Health Information Network (PHIN) is this framework.
The Public Health Information Network
National Center for Infectious Diseases: Division of Global Migration and Quarantine
Importation of Pets, Other Animals, and Animal Products into the United States
CDC regulations govern the importation of dogs, cats, turtles, monkeys, other animals, and animal products capable of causing human disease. Requirements for the importation of the most common pets are described below. Pets taken out of the United States are subject upon return, to the same regulations as those entering for the first time.
References and More Information:
Restricted Animals, Agents, Hosts, and Vectors
Importation of Dogs (Updated March 29, 2006)
Embargoed Animals and Monkeypox Virus
Embargo of Civets
Compendium of U.S. State and Territory Animal Import Regulations
Discussions Regarding Exotic Animal Importation, Sale, and Distribution:
Summary of Information Presented at Public Meeting on May 18, 2006 (Federal Register notice; updated August 8, 2006)
The National Association of State Public Health Veterinarians (NASPHV)
The National Association of State Public Health Veterinarians (NASPHV) helps direct and develop uniform public health procedures involving zoonotic disease in the United States and its territories
Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists
NetVet Veterinary Government & Law Resources
AC - Animal Care
Animal Care Policy Manual
APHIS - Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service
AWA - Animal Welfare Act
AWIC - Animal Welfare Information Center
CAHM - Center for Animal Health Monitoring
CEAH - Centers for Epidemiology and Animal Health
CVB - Center for Veterinary Biologics
CVM - Center for Veterinary Medicine
Disease Status and Information
NADC - National Animal Disease Center
NAHMS - National Animal Health Monitoring System
NCHS - National Center for Health Statistics
NCID - National Center for Infectious Diseases
Pets and Wildlife
Transportation, Sale, and Handling of Certain Animals (Title 7, Chapter 54)
US State Veterinarians
Viruses, Serums, Toxins, Antitoxins, and Analogous Products (Title 21, Chapter 4)
PROTOCOLS ARE in PLACE FOR SELF REGULATIONPeople who own captive bred "exotic" animals invest a great deal of time, money and resources to the care of those animals. It is in their best interest to learn all they can about their care, requirements and well being. Self regulation by peer pressure is remarkably effective; whether it be turtles, dogs, tigers, birds, or any other animal. The serious owner can be depended on to exceed the minimum, basic husbandry, veterinary and safety requirements.
Such owners educate others through books, magazine articles and lectures. The private sector has also contributed to and exchanged invaluable knowledge with zookeepers on a species by species basis. The below informational links are but a small example of the information available to the beginning and seasoned "non-native" animal owner. Protocols for environmental requirements such as caging and sanitation; husbandry manuals which include nutrition requirements, breeding facts and care of young animals; and veterinary medicine (including zoonosis) are a just a few of the basic topics to be found.
The Avian Veterinary Association (AAV), the Association of Reptile and Amphibian Veterinarians, the Association of Primate Veterinarians (APV), numerous exotic cat veterinarians throughout the U.S. and all the other veterinarians who specialize in various captive bred species have helped to develop approved biologics for the treatment and prevention of diseases.
All but a very few aviary birds for private ownership are imported due to the WBCA (Wild Bird Conservation Act) of 1992. Pet birds are NOT a risk factor for catching the flu. There have been no documented cases of humans catching Avian Flu from pet birds such as parrots, finches and other commonly kept species.
A Tragic Side Effect of the Avian Flu Pandemic Paranoia
Zoological Association of America Accreditation
Zoological Society of America
Aviary Management Protocols and Other Information ResourcesModel Aviculture Program and Certification
Association of Avian Veterinarians (AAV) Brochures
Organization of Professional Aviculturists
National and Regional Bird Clubs
Extensive Links Regarding Aviary Birds - Everything for the Beginning Aviculturist
AZA Husbandry Manuals and Misc Info
Housing, Husbandry, Care & Welfare of Selected Birds: AWIC Resource Series No. 26
(Quail, Pheasant, Finches, Ostrich, Dove, Parrot & Others) - February 2004
The below link will demonstrate how many different types of aviary birds exist. Each has their own specialized requirements. A three man regulatory board simply cannot properly regulate such diversity. In fact, an experienced aviculturist with decades of first hand knowledge cannot know everything about every captive bred bird!
Aviary Bird Taxonomy Database
Columbiformes (Doves and Pigeons)
Psittaciformes (Parrot type birds)
Passeriformes (finches, canaries)
Piciformes (toucan type birds)
Herp Information and OrganizationsHerpetology is concerned with "cold-blooded" groups of animals. "Herps" include salamanders, frogs, toads, an odd group of amphibians called caecilians, snakes, lizards, turtles, tuataras and crocodilians.
Association of Reptile and Amphibian Veterinarians
Reptile, Amphibian Medicine & Veterinary Books
Herp Care Sheets
Misc Husbandry Articles
Some Herp Information Links
Primate Ownership LawsPrimate Ownership Laws
Helping Hands: Monkey Helpers for the Disabled
Primate Books: General Care and other Information
The Simian Society
THE SIMIAN SOCIETY OF AMERICA is a non-profit organization founded in 1957 to improve the welfare of primates in captivity. Composed primarily of private caretakers, membership also includes veterinarians, primatologists and zoological officials. The SSA discourages the keeping of primates by individuals who do not understand their complex needs and the multitude of problems associated with keeping them. However, for those committed to providing captive primates with long-term, care-conducive homes, the society offers health, diet, psychological well-being and management information as well as access to a network of experienced primate caretakers. The Society maintains an active network through its monthly publications, a video lending library, educational publications, biennial conventions and local chapters. In addition, the SSA sponsors primate rescue and placement efforts. Through this network, mature, unwanted primates have found permanent homes in wildlife sanctuaries or private collections with necessary permits.
Commentary by Primate Owner Regarding Restrictive Laws
Big Cat Ownership, Model Legislation and HusbandryGeneral Requirements for Private Big Cat Ownership
AZA Small Felid Husbandry Manual
Feline Conservation Federation
Articles and Information about Feline Husbandry, Health Protocols and Exotic Animal Vaccinations
Exotic Cat Care Information
Diet and Nutrition
Housing and Environmental Enrichment
Author: Sue Beaulieu